The education, nodal also to define the individuality and the bond to the socio-cultural habitat, was also managed from the Ancient Age to the Middle Ages: the Admonitio generalis (789) by Charlemagne outlined the embryonic project for public education curated by the Church to manage power. Martin Luther equalized universal law education based on humanistic and religious teaching to secure salvation.
Modern education liberated from religious hegemony dates back to the seventeenth century steeped in the Renaissance and the establishment of universities: the secular, public and compulsory school had to create the elite to introduce the nation-state, dissolved by the Church of Rome, towards autonomy on the domestic and international political scene.
The enlightened absolutism of Maria Theresa of Austria and Frederick II of Prussia bound the adoption of pioneering models for public and compulsory education to the legitimacy distributed by the nobility. Ancien Régime relegated French language lessons and technical-scientific subjects to promote the study of Latin and religion.
The French Revolution (1789-1799) established the urgency of innovating the educational system also to create the example of a French citizen. Education has always been valued by the Bonaparte dynasty: the scholastic reform promoted by Emperor Napoleon I of France was then transmitted to his successor Napoleon III of France (Paris, 20 April 1808 – Chislehurst, 9 January 1873). Minister Victor Duruy, delegated by the last ruler, promoted classes in contemporary history and philosophy, economics and law, physical education, music and drawing.
Education was spread to citizens marginalized by the abnegation of Social Saints in Turin: the Salesian Society of San Giovanni Bosco dates back to 1859 and today distributes almost 15 thousand members on Earth to educate youth. The Salesian educational pedagogy prefers prevention to repression: the educator is nodal to monitor and transmit community rules to avoid falling into error.